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Test for hidden BDL fact sheet

This fact sheet covers England & WalesYou will need different advice if you live in Scotland.

This fact sheet tells you about the current tax rates and allowances.

Use this fact sheet to find out about:

  • personal allowances for income tax;
  • income tax rates and bands;
  • National Insurance contributions for sole traders;
  • National Insurance contributions for directors of limited companies and employees;
  • corporation tax; and
  • value added tax (VAT).

Income tax allowances

Personal allowances2020/212021/22
Personal allowance (1)£12,500£12,570
Income limit for personal allowance (2)£100,000£100,000
Income limit for married couple's allowance (3)£30,200£30,400
Married couple's allowance (maximum amount) (4)£9,075£9,125
Married couple's allowance (minimum amount) (5)£3,510£3,530
Blind person's allowance£2,500£2,520


(1) and (2) Since 2016/17 everyone is entitled to the same personal allowance and income limit, no matter when they were born.

(3) Where income is above this limit, the allowance is reduced by £1 for every £2 above the limit.

(4) and (5) The relief for married couple's allowance is given at 10%.

Income tax rates and bands

Scottish starter rate 19%Personal allowance - £2,085Personal allowance - £2,097
Scottish basic rate 20%£2,085 - £12,658£2,097 - £12,726
Scottish intermediate rate 21%£12,658 - £30,930£12,726 - £31,092
Scottish higher rate 41%£30,930 - £150,000£31,092 - £150,000
Scottish top rate 46%Over £150,000Over £150,000
  • From 6 April 2017 the bands and rates for Scottish income tax are set by the Scottish Government. These differ from those set in England and Wales.
  • From 2018/19 the Scottish Government introduced the Scottish starter rate and Scottish intermediate rate.
  • Your personal allowance goes down by £1 for every £2 that your adjusted net income is above £100,000. This means your allowance is zero if your income is £125,140 or above for 2021/22.
  • From 2017/18 tax relief for finance costs for landlords of residential properties will be restricted to the basic rate only. For more information, see HM Revenue and Customs guidance on Tax relief for residential landlords: how it's worked out.

National Insurance contributions

Class 2£3.05pw£3.05pw
Class 2 - Small profits threshold£6,475pa£6,515pa
Class 4 - Lower profits limit£9,500pa£9,568pa
Class 4 - Upper profits limit£50,000pa£50,270pa
Class 4 - Rate between upper and lower profits limit9%9%
Class 4 - Rate above upper profits limit2%2%

Example calculations

  • If you are under retirement age and either a sole trader or a partner in a partnership, the following examples will help you work out the monthly income tax and National Insurance you should pay on your profit from your business.
  • You will then be able to work out your Available drawings from your business. This will help you work out your household budget to show you what you have available to pay your creditors.
  • The example calculations should not be used for income from residential properties.
  • In the following examples, the figure taken from the business budget sheet for Drawings (what your profit is before tax and National Insurance) is £4,250 per month.

Estimated monthly income tax calculation for 2021/22

1.Insert the monthly Available drawings figure from Your business and household budget sheet£4,250A
2.Multiply Figure A by 12 to get your yearly drawings figure£51,000B
3.Insert your Personal allowance for income tax figure£12,570C
4.Take Figure C (your Personal allowance for income tax) away from Figure B (your yearly drawings) to work out what part of your drawings you pay tax on£38,430D
5.Multiply the first £2,097 of Figure D by 19% to work out how much Scottish starter rate tax you need to pay£398.43E
6.Multiply the next £10,629 of Figure D by 20% to work out how much Scottish basic rate tax you need to pay£2,125.80F
7.Multiply the next £18,366 of Figure D by 21% to work out how much Scottish intermediate rate tax you need to pay£3,856.86G
8.Take away £31,092 from Figure D and multiply the answer by 41% to work out how much Scottish higher rate tax you need to pay (you only need to do this step if Figure D is more than £31,092)£3,008.58H
9.Add together Figure E, Figure F, Figure G and Figure H to get an estimate of your yearly tax liability£9,389.67I
10.Divide Figure I by 12 to get an estimate of your monthly tax liability£782.47J

Use J £782.47 as the Estimated tax figure on Your business and household budget sheet.

Estimated monthly National Insurance contribution calculations for 2021/22

Class 2 National Insurance contributions

Use a flat rate of £13.22 per month (£3.05 per week) as the National Insurance class 2 figure on Your business and household budget sheet.

Class 4 National Insurance contributions

1.Use Figure B from above (unless Figure B is more than the upper profits limit of £50,270, then insert £50,270)£50,270K
2.Figure K minus £9,568 (the lower profits limit)£40,702L
3.Figure L multiplied by 9% (the rate payable between the lower and upper limits)£3,663.18M
4.Figure B from above minus £50,270 (if the answer is less than 0, insert 0)£730N
5.Figure N multiplied by 2% (the rate payable above upper limit)£14.60O
6.Add together Figure M and Figure O to get your estimated yearly amount of class 4 contribution£3,677.78P
7.Divide Figure P by 12 to get your estimated monthly class 4 contribution£306.48Q

Use Q £306.48 as the National Insurance class 4 figure on Your business and household budget sheet.

Corporation tax

Main rate19%19%

From 1 April 2015, there is a single corporation tax rate for non-ring fence profits.

Value added tax (VAT)

Standard rate20%20%
Reduced rate5%5%
Zero rate0%0%
Registration level£85,000£85,000
De-registration level£83,000£83,000

Making Tax Digital for VAT was introduced on 1 April 2019 for businesses with a taxable turnover above the VAT threshold of £85,000. For more information, go to

National Insurance contributions class 1

Directors and employees2020/212021/22
Lower earnings limit primary class 1£120pw£120pw
Upper earnings limit primary class 1£962pw£967pw
Primary threshold£183pw£184pw
Secondary threshold£169pw£170pw
Class 1 rate between primary threshold and upper earnings limit12%12%
Class 1 rate above upper earnings limit2%2%
Class 1A rate on employer provided benefits13.8%13.8%
Employers' rates2020/212021/22
Secondary class 1 rate above second threshold13.8%13.8%